An Inficon Transpector2 HPR RGA was purchased from eBay and refurbished. I will use it for leak checking and ion selection experiments. Thanks to Aota Vac and Inficon for software assistance!
Put simply, an RGA is a small mass spectrometer that allows the operator to see the composition of the residual gases left in the vacuum chamber after pumping. Basic theory here.
This RGA is equipped with an electron multiplier so it operates at a maximum pressure of 1e-4Torr and is good down to about 1e-15Torr which is not a limit I will be reaching anytime soon. The spectra shown above indicates a large peak at an AMU of 18 which is H2O. This means that the chamber needs to be baked out to remove water embedded in chamber walls and surfaces until the highest peaks are N2 and O2.
A spectrum analyzer and near field probe was used to determine the main operating frequency of the RGA to approximately 3.02mhz. The RGA is also equipped with an Ar calibration source. Serial logs indicate that it was manufactured in 2007 and has been run thousands of hours past recommended service/filament replacement and the measured total pressure in the chamber was over an order of magnitude too high when compared to a hot-cathode ion gauge, but after calibration everything seems to be in spec.
Thermal evaporation deposition of Al and Ge from Tungsten and Tantalum boats, respectively. A blind hole is drilled and tapped in the chamber bottom plate for a center tap feedthrough (common ground) for the boats. Deposition starts at around 7e-7Torr and ends around 5e-6Torr due to outgassing. Aluminum alloys with Tungsten at the high temperature and causes boat failure, a thicker gauge boat will be used in the future or one made of TiB2-BN or BN. Update: W 0.015″ boat thickness seems OK.
Approx. deposition rate throughout the run was 2.2A/s, with total accumulation of 500A. Much faster than my sputtering setup but yields a worse film.
In situ plasma cleaning is via the red ICP coil seen in the 8th picture. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is used to measure the thickness of the deposited films and current is supplied by a rewound microwave oven transformer. The UV-VIS spectrometer is used to monitor the emission spectra of O2 plasma. O2 is flowed into the chamber via a Mass Flow Controller (MFC) until the pressure is 75-100mTorr and the substrate is plasma cleaned for 5 minutes with 100W RF prior to depositions.
As current pass through the boats, they heat up to 1000 – 1800C and subsequently heat up much of the surrounding chamber and mounting parts. This starts serious outgassing in the chamber and without prior cleaning and bake out quickly raises the pressure to non-workable pressures and the deposition rate slows.
I added a second turbo pump to raise the pumping speed/gas throughput (previously 110L/s and now an additional 50L/s) and to tolerate higher outgassing.
It was also noted that the evaporation of Al with lots of H2O vapor in the chamber (no baking) leads to a reduction of chamber pressure (presumably the formation of Al2O3 with H2O) and the production of H2 as seen on an RGA.
Field oxide growth – 1200 c w/ water vapor, 5000A blue film
If wafer in storage, dehydration bake – 10 min @ 220c
Check wafer hydrophobic if necessary
Optional spin HMDS
Spin 3.5mL AZ 4210 resist 30 sec @ 3500 rpm ~3.5um film
Soft bake resist 2 min @ 105c hotplate
Expose active area
Develop 1:3 400k KOH:H20 puddle 1 min
Water rinse (no solvent)
Inspect wafer, if defect strip resist and retry
Hard bake 15 min @ 125c hotplate
Etch active area – 1-2% HF 15 min or until surface hydrophobic
Resist strip – Acetone or plasma ashing 100 watts RF 5 min @ 125mTorr O2
Tall particles can easily short out the thin gate oxide in these devices, as shown under my SEM. This poses an issue for making such devices in a garage; the gate oxides must be grown thicker to mitigate shorted devices which leads to a higher threshold voltage for the FET.
A small, modular, and versatile chamber was constructed for plasma and other research experiments. The main vacuum manifold can be configured with multiple feedthroughs in either standalone vacuum mode or connected to a large chamber. The front is a 6″ CF viewport that can be swapped for a gas feedthrough assembly.
The chamber is being used right now to study simulate vacuum conductance and pressure gradients across larger chamber systems such as an ion implanter with a turbo pump on one end and an ion source and MFC gas flow far away from the pump. The gas flow creates a higher pressure in the ion source chamber and, in theory, allows for low energy beam transport and acceleration into a much lower pressure substrate/target chamber (in the case of an ion implanter).
The Micro Ion Gauge ATM is an awesome gauge that is extremely sensitive and reads from atmospheric pressure down to 1e-9 torr switching seamlessly through a range of 4 different vacuum gauges. It has an analog voltage output from 7volts down to 0.5v logarithmic to the pressure. This gauge had very bad noise issues, the voltage output moved with pressure change but was not useable due to the analog output swinging ~ +/- 0.25 volts multiple times per second.
The problem was found to be bad electrolytic caps, as expected. They exhibited high ESR, Low DC resistance, puffed up vent/tops, and electrolyte leakage on the PCB.
A quick attempt making a titanium sublimation pump. Ti welding rod was bent into a coil around aluminum round stock and placed across 30-50 amps in high vacuum yielding successful results. Chamber was roughed down to 20mTorr then pumped with turbo to 1e-5 and briefly baked out. More testing will be done and results will be posted along with an updated design with shielding to make it into an actual pump rather than depositing all over the chamber walls.
During testing I experienced a strange pumping curve a few times as shown in the last picture where the filament while heated at 50 amps seemed to out gas twice before reaching sublimation.
(Click on image to enlarge)
The basic idea of a TSP or getter pump is that the filament is heated past 900 degrees c with a high current across it. The filament first out gases and raises the chamber pressure, but then reaches sublimation pressure where it begins to form a thin volatile coating of Ti on the chamber walls.
Titanium, in this heated state, will readily combine with gaseous specious in the chamber to form a more stable coating and the gas molecules in the chamber basically get incorporated into a thin film on the chamber walls and trapped. The filament current is cycled for highest effectiveness. A rewound MOT is used for high current supply.
Progress in developing the metalization process for the home chip lab. DC and RF sputtering is used and the process will be refined more and then I will move on to the wet process with etching metal through resist mask, etc.
Sample is scratched with a razor and surface roughness is measured with a KLA Tencor Stylus Profiler. Surface is extremely rough and best interpretation of the data leads me to believe the thickness of the sputtered film is approximately 0.492um.
Two internal radiant infrared heat lamps and external resistive heating elements are used to bakeout the vacuum system for 24 hours allowing for ion pump operation. Normally when the chamber is full of unwanted moisture and impurities ionizing gas in the chamber will lead to a sharp increase in pressure due to plasma cleaning of the chamber walls and subsequent release of gas molecules.